Numericalsimulators are playing an increasingly important role in advancing our fundamental understanding of hydrological systems. They are indispensable tools for managing groundwater resources; analyzing proposed and actual remediation activities at contaminated sites; optimizing recovery of oil, gas, and geothermal energy; evaluating subsurface structures and mining activities; designing monitoring systems; assessing the long-term impacts of chemical and nuclear waste disposal; and devising improved irrigation and drainage practices in agricultural areas, among many other applications. The complexity of subsurface hydrology in the vadose zone calls for sophisticated modeling codes capable of handling the strong nonlinearities involved; the interactions of coupled...

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