Because of their strong attenuation by hydrogen and relative insensitivity to atmospheric gases and mineral solids, neutrons have long been employed to measure the water content of soils. Research based on the thermalization of “fast” neutrons released from a source probe inserted into an access tube commenced in the 1950s following the seminal paper by Gardner and Kirkham (1952). However, it was not until the 1990s that neutrons were first applied to visualize the spatial distribution of soil water (Tullis et al., 1994). Neutron imaging is based on measuring the transmitted intensity of neutrons, either in two...

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