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Endocranial casts of Mesozoic mammals and of some cynodonts are reviewed. New tentative reconstructions of brains of Probainognathus and Therioherpeton are given. It is claimed that the endocast of Amblotherium is an artefact. Brains of Mesozoic mammals were lissencephalic, with no flexure, had very large olfactory bulbs, relatively extensive cerebral hemispheres diverging posteriorly, and large paraflocculi. Within this pattern two types are designated: the cryptomesencephalic type (large vermis, no dorsal midbrain exposure, and no cerebellar hemispheres) which occurs in Triconodonta and Multituberculata; and the eumesencephalic type (wide cerebellum, cerebellar hemispheres, and large dorsal midbrain exposure) which occurs in Cretaceous...

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