Seismic image deterioration is a major problem for structures under complex overburdens. In areas under major faults and salt bodies, it is common to observe amplitude washout zones, poor structural definition, and relatively strong coherent and incoherent seismic noise. We developed a data-driven workflow of Q least-squares migration to mitigate these problems by enhancing the horizontal and vertical resolutions of seismic images. The workflow includes accurate velocity model building with joint full-waveform inversion and tomography to maximize the stacking power of P-wave primaries, Q tomography that balances weak-amplitude washout zones and minimizes swing noises, and least-squares migration with the aid of a constraint map that yields higher-resolution structural images. Its application on a wide-azimuth data set from the Tengiz oil field demonstrates the effective mitigation of fault shadow issues with an overall improvement of image quality. In addition, the uplift in focusing of diffracted energies shows promising improvements in enhancing seismic mega-amplitude events. Thus, the proposed method greatly increases the fidelity of seismic attribute analysis when compared with conventional vintage processing.

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