In recent years, the development of time-lag full-waveform inversion (FWI) has enabled the use of the full wavefield (primary reflections, diving waves, and their multiples and ghosts) in the inversion process. With this advancement, it is possible to obtain a very detailed velocity model, ultimately reaching the point of deriving from the velocity a migration-like reflectivity image called the FWI image. When the FWI maximum frequency is increased, high-resolution velocity models are obtained, revealing superior reservoir information compared to conventional imaging results. Two case studies will be discussed in this paper. The first is in the Greater Castberg area where the 150 Hz FWI image greatly surpassed the Q Kirchhoff prestack depth migration image from the water-bottom level down to the reservoir (located at a depth of about 1.5 km). The second case study is over the Nordkapp Basin. The use of the full wavefield for the shallow ultra-high-resolution (UHR) FWI image (run at 200 Hz) revealed reverse faulting and pockmark details that were invisible with Kirchhoff prestack depth migration and reverse time migration. By using additional information present in multiples, ghosts, and diving waves, a spatial resolution down to 3 m was achieved. This made it possible to image very thin features without the need for a dedicated high-resolution acquisition design. The current UHR FWI image workflow provides velocity and reflectivity information in the near surface that is important in identifying optimal locations for various purposes such as well placement and wind-turbine installation.

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