Time-lapse electrical imaging has been used for diverse scientific and engineering problems to monitor changes in the subsurface associated with fluid injections, fluid flow, solute transport, phase changes, and other physical and chemical processes. The burgeoning applications of time-lapse electrical imaging underscore its potential to provide valuable, qualitative insight to support development of conceptual models of subsurface frameworks and processes. Advances in electrical geophysical instrumentation and data analysis over the last approximately 25 years allow for long-term, continuous monitoring. We posit that the next step in the evolution of time-lapse electrical imaging is autonomous, real-time monitoring, which has potential to support real-time management decisions and feedback control of subsurface systems. We present (1) a framework for autonomous, real-time electrical imaging and (2) demonstrations of real-time electrical imaging for aquifer remediation monitoring. Two case studies are presented: (1) vadose-zone desiccation and (2) polyphosphate injections to sequester radionuclide contamination.

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