The seismic data set is a fundamental requirement for producing oil and gas fields. It provides understanding of the structure and stratigraphy of the reservoirs, and it is now routinely employed in reservoir modeling for advancing insights into how fields are being produced. Modern 3D seismic data were first developed in the 1960s, but it wasn't until the 1980s that seismic interpretation software enabled the building of gridded reservoir models from seismic interpretations. Reservoir modeling utilizing seismic interpretations drove insights into reservoir quality and performance, helping to understand the communication between reservoir units and wells, particularly in fields with many wells. But key challenges such as the cost of building or updating reservoir models and scale variance created barriers for early industry-wide adoption. Data integration required calibration to correct and account for the difference in measurement scales of seismic data and well data, as well as to create robust relationships between seismic properties and petrophysical properties in the model. Over time, technological advancements led to a reduction in the cost of reservoir modeling, while increased acquisition, processing, and utility of seismic data provided the means to drive innovation toward incorporating seismic. Today, 3D and 4D seismic data play pivotal roles in defining and updating reservoir models where hundreds to thousands of simulations can be realized in a reservoir model to explore history matching and model uncertainties.

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