Since the discovery of slow-slip phenomena, scientific understanding of the behavior of active fault systems has been transformed significantly. It is now recognized that tectonic fault systems are characterized by a spectrum of slip behavior, from “regular” (stick-slip) earthquakes that radiate elastic wave energy and occur on a timescale of seconds, to slow-slip events with durations ranging from minutes to years. More recently, slow-slip phenomena have been observed and modeled in association with injection-induced seismicity. This includes evidence for predominantly slow fault slip during injection that triggered dynamic rupture elsewhere on a fault. In the case of hydraulic fracturing, slow-slip behavior is consistent with the frictional characteristics of faults in clay-rich rocks. A change in pore pressure or slip rate can cause a fault to transition from slow to unstable slip. Through real-time monitoring of slip-slip processes and, potentially, the development of operational adjustments to reduce the hazard of damaging ground motions, a better understanding of slow-slip processes could contribute to improved risk mitigation for induced earthquakes. Effective tools for direct observation of slow-slip processes include tiltmeters, strainmeters, global navigation satellite systems, interferometric synthetic aperture radar, and distributed fiber-optic sensing.

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