Communities and infrastructure networks are increasingly exposed to natural hazards such as earthquakes, landslides, sinkholes, flooding, and wildfires. Aging infrastructure poses additional hazards due to decreasing structural integrity and rising maintenance costs. Climate change and the related rise in extreme weather events, such as longer droughts and stronger storms, are also contributing to escalated hazard, and expanding urbanization, which is moving communities into areas known to be hazardous, elevates the risk these communities face.

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