Borehole geophysical methods are a key component of subsurface monitoring of geologic CO2 storage sites because boreholes form a locus where geophysical measurements can be compared directly with the controlling geology. Borehole seismic methods, including intrawell, crosswell, and surface-to-borehole acquisition, are useful for site characterization, surface seismic calibration, 2D/3D time-lapse imaging, and microseismic monitoring. Here, we review the most common applications of borehole seismic methods in the context of storage monitoring and consider the role that detailed geophysical simulations can play in answering questions that arise when designing monitoring plans. Case study examples are included from the multitude of CO2 monitoring projects that have demonstrated the utility of borehole seismic methods for this purpose over the last 20 years.

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