To limit the warming of the planet to no more than a 2°C increase, models show that net-zero release of anthropomorphic CO2 must be achieved by the middle of the century. For the foreseeable future, the majority of the world's energy will still be provided by fossil fuels, so other methods, besides expanding the contribution of renewable energy, are needed in order to achieve this goal. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is one such method, without which the cost to achieve the 2°C target would more than double. To achieve this climate goal, CCS efforts must increase by approximately 100-fold from current levels within the next 20 years. Geophysical simulations on suitable geologic models will provide an important tool to streamline and accelerate the vast expansion of geophysical site characterization and long-term monitoring tasks required for industrial-scale CCS to succeed.

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