Despite decades of technology development and experience, seismic imaging below complex overburdens, such as salt bodies, basalt flows, or shallow gas accumulations, remains a challenge. For successful imaging in such settings, a number of key elements need to be in place: the overburden complexity needs to be properly captured and represented in the subsurface model (acquisition/model building), the target below the complex overburden needs to be sufficiently well illuminated (acquisition), and, finally, the target needs to be properly imaged through the complex overburden (imaging algorithm). All of these elements are discussed in the papers collected in this special section, which consists of contributions that demonstrate recent technology developments as well as insightful case studies that show how the different elements come together to make a successful imaging project.

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