In our case studies, the success of subsalt exploration and development wells depended heavily on the characterization of highly heterogeneous lacustrine microbial carbonates. Acoustic and elastic inversions have proved to be a good proxy for identification of reservoir quality variation for exploration and development well placements. However, qualitative and quantitative usage of subsalt seismic amplitudes requires proper illumination and good signal-to-noise ratio. If properly imaged, mode-converted reflections and interbed multiples can be complementary to the P-wave image. But, in conventional P-wave-oriented imaging, both types of events cannot be imaged correctly. They appear as coherent noise and negatively impact the overall exploration and development project outcomes, especially in areas with poor illumination. This paper consists of two parts: first, we investigate the potential problems resulting from converted waves and interbed multiples in data from two different basins — the Gulf of Mexico and the Campos Basin in offshore Brazil — and show our approach to attenuate them to reveal the true structures. The second part focuses on advanced identification of interbed multiples in modeling and migration methods. To facilitate the various strategies to attenuate interbed multiples, “interpretation” of the various events plays a significant role. Vertical seismic profile (VSP) data are excellent for the purpose; however, these data are only available at well locations, if they are recorded. As a result of many years of technology advancement, pseudo VSP data can be constructed effectively from standard streamer survey data. Two methods are highlighted in this paper for building pseudo VSP data in a full two-way sense, based on a typical Brazil-type salt model: Marchenko-based processing and full-wavefield migration. Major subsalt plays in the Gulf of Mexico and emerging plays in Brazil should benefit significantly from elimination of these kinds of coherent noise.

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