The oil and gas industry has established 4D seismic as a key tool to maximize oil recovery and operational safety in siliciclastic and low- to medium-stiffness carbonate reservoirs. However, for the stiffer carbonate reservoirs of the Brazilian presalt, the value of 4D seismic is still under debate. Tupi Field has been the stage of a pioneering 4D seismic project to field test the time-lapse technique's ability in monitoring production and water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection in the Brazilian presalt. Ocean-bottom node (OBN) technology was applied for the first time in the ultra-deep waters of Santos Basin, leading to the Tupi Nodes pilot project. We started with feasibility studies to forecast the presalt carbonate time-lapse responses. The minerals that constitute these carbonate rocks have an incompressibility modulus that is generally twice as large as those of siliciclastic rocks. This translates into discrete 4D signals that require enhanced seismic acquisition and processing techniques to be correctly detected and mapped. Consequently, two OBN seismic acquisitions were carried out. Time-lapse processing included the application of top-of-the-line processing tools, such as interbed multiple attenuation. The resulting 4D amplitude images demonstrate good signal-to-noise ratio, supporting both static and dynamic interpretations that are compatible with injection and production histories. To unlock the potential of 4D quantitative interpretation and the future employment of 4D-assisted history-matching workflows, we conducted a 4D seismic inversion test. Acoustic impedance variations of about 1.5% are reliably distinguishable beyond the immediate vicinity of the wells. These 4D OBN seismic surveys and interpretations will assist in identifying oil-bypassed targets for infill wells and calibrating WAG cycles, increasing oil recovery. We anticipate that studies of the entire Brazilian presalt section will greatly benefit from the results and conclusions already reached for Tupi Field.

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