The Middle East is one of the world's most prolific regions in terms of petroleum reserves and production. It accounts for one-third of global oil production, one-sixth of gas production, about half of proved oil reserves, and two-fifths of proved gas reserves. Recent discoveries of unconventional resources have added even more reserves to the area's vast resources. Historically, many of the conventional fields in the Middle East were discovered by using conventional geophysical exploration methods. The continuing search for conventional and unconventional reservoirs has led to a rapid advancement of geophysical technologies in data acquisition, processing, and interpretation. These advanced technologies are aimed at solving region-specific challenges in defining the complexity of the near surface and subsurface. This is evidenced by the increasing activities in the development and application of new geophysical technologies in the exploration, development, and production of petroleum resources.