Abstract

Seismic wavelets are dynamic components that result in a seismic trace when convolved with reflectivity series. The seismic wavelet is described by three components: amplitude, frequency, and phase. Amplitude and frequency are considered static because they mainly affect the appearance of a seismic event. Phase can have a large effect on seismic appearance by changing the way it describes the subsurface. Knowing the wavelet properties of certain seismic data facilitates the process of interpretation by providing an understanding of the appearance of regional geologic markers and hydrocarbon-bearing formation behavior. The process through which seismic data wavelets are understood is called seismic well tie. Seismic well tie is the first step in calibrating seismic data in terms of polarity and phase. It ensures that the seismic data are descriptive to regional markers, well markers, and discoveries (if they exist). The step connects well data to seismic data to ensure that the seismic correctly describes well results at the well location. It then extends the understanding of seismic behavior to the rest of the area covered by the seismic data. Good seismic well tie will greatly reduce uncertainties accompanying seismic interpretation. One important outcome of the seismic well tie process is understanding the phase of seismic data, which affects how seismic data will reflect a known geologic marker or hydrocarbon-bearing zone. This understanding can be useful in quantifying discoveries attached to seismic anomalies and extending knowledge from the well location to the rest of the area covered by seismic data.

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