As part of a wide-reaching full-waveform inversion (FWI) research program, FWI is applied to an onshore seismic data set collected in the Delaware Basin, west Texas. FWI is routinely applied on typical marine data sets with high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), relatively good low-frequency content, and reasonably long offsets. Land seismic data sets, in comparison, present significant challenges for FWI due to low S/N, a dearth of low frequencies, and limited offsets. Recent advancements in FWI overcome limitations due to poor S/N and low frequencies making land FWI feasible to use to update the shallow velocities. The chosen area has contrasting and variable near-surface conditions providing an excellent test data set on which to demonstrate the workflow and its challenges. An acoustic FWI workflow is used to update the near-surface velocity model in order to improve the deeper image and simultaneously help highlight potential shallow drilling hazards.

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