Ten years ago, CGG launched a project to develop a new concept of marine vibrator (MV) technology. We present our work, concluding with the successful acquisition of a seismic image using an ocean-bottom-node 2D survey. The expectation for MV technology is that it could reduce ocean exposure to seismic source sound, enable new acquisition solutions, and improve seismic data quality. After consideration of our objectives in terms of imaging, productivity, acoustic efficiency, and operational risk, we developed two spectrally complementary prototypes to cover the seismic bandwidth. In practice, an array composed of several MV units is needed for images of comparable quality to those produced from air-gun data sets. Because coupling to the water is invariant, MV signals tend to be repeatable. Since far-field pressure is directly proportional to piston volumetric acceleration, the far-field radiation can be well controlled through accurate piston motion control. These features allow us to shape signals to match precisely a desired spectrum while observing equipment constraints. Over the last few years, an intensive validation process was conducted at our dedicated test facility. The MV units were exposed to 2000 hours of in-sea testing with only minor technical issues.

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