China ranks second and third in global oil and natural gas consumption, and fifth and sixth in global oil and natural gas production, respectively (U.S. EIA, 2018). In the past 25 years, China's oil consumption has increased 3.5 times, and natural gas consumption is rising rapidly as well. China is increasing its investment in the petroleum industry, with a goal of significantly expanding domestic oil and gas production. Complex geology, rough surface conditions, and the need to explore deep targets, unconventional resources, and offshore reservoirs pose great challenges to geophysical exploration. Geophysical technologies in China thus have advanced significantly in data acquisition, processing, and interpretation. To demonstrate the development and applications of geophysical technologies in the exploration, development, and production of oil and gas resources, we invited academic and industry experts to present recent studies on exploration geophysics in China.