Abstract

Detection and characterization of fractures in reservoirs is of great importance for maximizing hydrocarbon productivity and recovery efficiency. Fractures play an important role in the producibility of unconventional reservoirs such as basement reservoirs. Basement reservoirs are typically found within metamorphic and igneous rock underlying a sedimentary basin, where faulting and tectonic uplift has led to creation of a fracture network. For fracture characterization, integration of information from seismic and nonseismic data such as cores and/or formation microimaging (FMI) logs is essential. Various seismic attributes such as coherency and curvature that are derived from reflection seismic data have been used for more than a decade to detect faults and fractures. In advanced seismic fracture detection technology, automatic fault extraction (AFE) from diffraction seismic data (discontinuity volume) more effectively detects finer scale features in seismic data. We demonstrate the utility of this methodology with an application to seismic data from the Padra Field, South Cambay Basin, India, where the basaltic Deccan Trap forms the basement, and hydrocarbons are produced from basement fractures. Diffraction imaging was applied during processing of the full-azimuth 3D-3C seismic data that cover this field. Using wavefield decomposition in the subsurface local angle domain, separate reflection (specular) and diffraction data volumes were produced. The high-resolution specular stack data imaged a prominent reflector well below the trap top, which is not visible in conventional seismic reflection data. Diffraction stack data also provided higher resolution fault definition and enhanced imaging of spatially consistent geological discontinuities. Subsequent application of the AFE technique to diffraction-imaged data yielded sharp and crisp definition of faults and fractures. We also performed velocity variation with azimuth analysis of 3D angle-azimuth reflection gathers to generate a fracture orientation map. Both sets of results were validated by fractures detected in FMI logs from wells in the field.

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