Abstract

Reflectivities of elastic properties can be expressed as a sum of the reflectivities of P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, and density, as can the amplitude-variation-with-offset (AVO) parameters, intercept, gradient, and curvature. This common format allows elastic property reflectivities to be expressed as a sum of AVO parameters. Most AVO studies are conducted using a two-term approximation, so it is helpful to reduce the three-term expressions for elastic reflectivities to two by assuming a relationship between P-wave velocity and density. Reduced to two AVO components, elastic property reflectivities can be represented as vectors on intercept-gradient crossplots. Normalizing the lengths of the vectors allows them to serve as basis vectors such that the position of any point in intercept-gradient space can be inferred directly from changes in elastic properties. This provides a direct link between properties commonly used in rock physics and attributes that can be measured from seismic data. The theory is best exploited by constructing new seismic data sets from combinations of intercept and gradient data at various projection angles. Elastic property reflectivity theory can be transferred to the impedance domain to aid in the analysis of well data to help inform the choice of projection angles. Because of the effects of gradient measurement errors, seismic projection angles are unlikely to be the same as theoretical angles or angles derived from well-log analysis, so seismic data will need to be scanned through a range of angles to find the optimum.

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