Remote-sensing data are highly useful for the oil and gas industry. Remote sensing has proven to be an integral tool for downstream and upstream oil and gas operations through evaluation of infrastructure for well-site planning and for exploration through large-scale regional reconnaissance. Spectral analysis is a key form of processing to evaluate for surface outcrops and surface hydrocarbon seepage. We will show methodologies using remote-sensing data and how they assist in the overall understanding of the hydrocarbon system. A number of studies are shown in which hyperspectral and multispectral data sets have proven useful in understanding the geology and inferring information about the subsurface. Case studies are presented from Pennsylvania, USA; Neuquén province, Argentina; and Lebanon. Advantages and disadvantages of the use of these methodologies and the future of remote sensing in the oil and gas industry are discussed.