In Marchenko imaging, wavefields are retrieved at specified focal points in the subsurface through an iterative scheme derived from the multidimensional Marchenko equation. The method requires seismic-reflection data at the earth's surface (after free-surface multiple elimination) and an estimate of the direct wavefield from the surface to each focal point, which can be computed, for instance, in a macrovelocity model. In the first iteration, the direct wavefield is crosscorrelated with the reflection data. This operation is identical to inverse-wavefield extrapolation as is applied commonly in various imaging schemes, for instance, in reverse time migration (RTM). At each succeeding iteration, the result of the previous iteration is truncated in time and crosscorrelated with the reflection data again. To obtain a seismic image, a multidimensional deconvolution-based imaging condition can be applied to the retrieved wavefields. By this approach, both primary reflections and internal multiples contribute to the construction of the image. Alternatively, a crosscorrelation-based imaging condition can be used in which only the primary reflections are imaged and the contributions of internal multiples are subtracted. The latter strategy offers more flexibility because the subtraction of redatumed internal multiples can be implemented adaptively. Through this approach, the artifacts from internal multiples can be removed effectively from a conventional RTM image.

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