A one-dimensional (1D) prestack example is used to examine the use of multiples to obtain an approximate image of an unrecorded primary by using the space-and-time coincidence of upgoing and downgoing waves (Claerbout's imaging condition II). The result shows that the image of an unrecorded primary (extracted from a recorded multiple) can be used to augment and enhance subsurface imaging from recorded primaries when there is inadequate or insufficient acquisition of primaries. Imaging results are examined and analyzed from two different and classic imaging conditions: (1) the predicted coincident-source-and-receiver experiment at depth, at time equals zero (Claerbout's imaging condition III), and (2) Claerbout's imaging condition II. The result of that comparison represents the advantages of Claerbout's imaging condition III over Claerbout's imaging condition II in terms of image definitiveness and amplitude analysis. However, an adaptation that is motivated and inspired by Claerbout's imaging condition II can be used to improve imaging results by providing an approximate image of an unrecorded primary subevent of a recorded multiple. A clear example is provided of that method and the added value for imaging that it can represent.

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