China is in an accelerating transition for exploring and developing diverse types of natural resources, including deep onshore and offshore hydrocarbons, shale gas, and coalbed methane. Complexities of these unconventional reservoirs and fluids give rise to tough problems or even unprecedented challenges for most routine practices. Nevertheless, remarkable achievements are accomplished, based on progress in theory and technology of multidisciplinary geosciences. Surely the role of geophysics is irreplaceable. Achievements have been made in almost every aspect of geophysics, including target-oriented seismic acquisition, processing, interpretation, passive seismic, OBC, VSP, EM methods, and so forth.