Extracting quantitative reservoir rock and fluid properties from seismic waves is of paramount importance to improve reservoir productivity and well targeting. There have been significant efforts to extract this information from wave dispersion and attenuation. Dispersion is the variation of velocity with frequency, whereas attenuation is the loss of wave amplitudes with distance. The details in dispersion and attenuation depend on the rock microstructure, larger-scale geology, and fluids. This special section addresses several of these considerations in theory and laboratory settings.