Standards for 4D seismic feasibility estimation and interpretation aim to simplify the 4D seismic interpretation process, facilitate understanding of results, and accelerate learning between projects and between disciplines. Standards encode those best practices that have proved to have a more or less universal relevance in the subject area and provide a convenient starting point for individuals and teams new to 4D interpretation. Standards are about casting a result into a familiar format. The main result is a quality improvement of the integration process between different disciplines; a side effect is the efficiency improvement and time saving from increased skill levels within each discipline. There are currently accepted 4D standards in the fields of

  • F = 4D feasibility (fluid effects)

  • P = poststack processing

  • I = seismic inversion and 4D

  • A = 4D interpretation and attributes

  • S = simulator-to-seismic

The primary user group is subsurface professionals in asset teams, in particular reservoir engineers, geologists, and geophysicists. Although 4D seismic is seen as a tool originating in the geophysical domain, the fact that it is about observing reservoir dynamics makes it of primary interest to reservoir engineers and geologists alike.

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