Abstract

A series of ocean-bottom cable (OBC) surveys has been conducted in the Bohai Sea in China in recent years to overcome difficulties experienced with streamer surveys in shallow water, such as strong currents, missing near offsets, and obstacles. The main challenges in OBC data imaging include steeply dipping structures, serious multiples in the shallow-water environment, large lateral velocity variations, fault shadow effects, and low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). To obtain optimal images, advanced processing technologies have been developed and applied to OBC data which involve effective PZ summation and shallow-water demultiple, a high-fidelity beam migration in the wide-azimuth domain, and accurate velocity-model building in 3D tilted-transverse-isotropy (TTI) media. The PZ summation and shallow-water demultiple methods aim to effectively eliminate shallow-water ghosts to achieve broadband seismic data. Furthermore, high-fidelity controlled-beam migration (CBM) and TTI velocity-model updates greatly enhance steep dip imaging, improve S/N, and reduce turnaround time. Through the combination of these technologies, OBC data processing provides high-quality images with well-defined steeply dipping structures to reduce exploration risk in the Bohai area.

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