Near-surface modeling for statics corrections is an integral part of a land seismic data processing workflow. The methods for near-surface modeling can be categorized into five groups: (1) uphole surveys, (2) shallow seismic surveys, (3) traveltime inversion, (4) waveform inversion, and (5) joint inversion of seismic and nonseismic data. The first two are past methods, the third, usually referred to as traveltime tomography, is at present the most widely accepted method, and the last two methods are future methods with several practical aspects yet to be resolved.

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