Abstract

The recent development of techniques to extend the bandwidth of marine towed-streamer surveys has significantly changed the marine seismic landscape. In fact, it has coined the new category of “broadband seismic,” now synonymous with the marine towed-streamer market. The bandwidth challenge for marine towed-streamer seismic is well documented and is related to mitigating, or completely removing, the interference pattern from the interaction of the upgoing primary wave and its surface reflection (i.e., its ghost) at the source and receiver side. The interference results in the ghost notches in the amplitude spectrum which bound the useful bandwidth of the data at the high and low ends of the spectrum.

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