Key objectives of the surface seismic reflection method include high-resolution imaging of subsurface structures for the creation of accurate 3D geologic models and reliable inversion to reveal indicators of rock properties and lithofacies based on which static and dynamic models can be established. Achieving these objectives in an optimized manner requires bandwidth-enhanced data as input, not only in a temporal sense but also spatially. Whereas temporal bandwidth is an extensively discussed aspect of broadband seismic acquisition, the benefits of spatial bandwidth enhancement have not yet been widely documented because operational and technical constraints have, until recently, proved prohibitive to a solution. A new technology has now been introduced to the marketplace that is able to address both the temporal and spatial bandwidth constraints in a joint interpolation and deghosting method, enabling full 3D processing capabilities that go well beyond what is traditionally understood under broadband. The benefits of the new technology are manifold, including improved 4D analysis, effective seismic interference removal, and enhanced imaging and inversion. This article reviews some of the technologies in place that address the temporal bandwidth challenge of towed-marine seismic and then presents the new solution to the spatial bandwidth constraint originating from coarse crossline sampling and discusses what is possible beyond the traditional understanding of broadband.

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