Geohazards have a direct impact on the drilling and completion of wells; they present safety risks and are costly. They can be caused by formation properties such as overpressure and can be associated with geological structures such as faults and salt bodies. Critical to drilling success, seismic data provide information used to construct an Earth model consisting of 3D structural depth images showing geological targets or hazards and formation properties relevant to drilling such as pore pressure. However, predrill estimates of structural depth images and formation pressures typically have large uncertainties, which elevate safety concerns and drilling risks and could increase the cost of wells. This risk is especially problematic in challenging environments such as deep water, where rig rates are high and continue to increase.

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