Abstract

Most of the world's conventional petroleum reserves are onshore. When unconventional resources—such as shale gas, tar sands, and shale oil—are included in the tally of remaining hydrocarbons, the fraction on land becomes overwhelming. Land seismic activity is on the increase around the world; modeling it in a realistic way has a unique set of challenges, from dealing with near-surface heterogeneity at scales from meters to kilometers, to incorporating a full range of elastic propagation physics, from surface-wave scattering to shear-wave attenuation to the general anisotropy of finely layered and fractured reservoirs.

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