Continuous passive recordings of microseismic experiments can be used to detect and trace the modifications in frequency content during hydraulic fracturing or heavy-oil steam injection. We analyze the performance of four different time-frequency representations, namely the short-time Fourier transform, the S-transform, the continuous wavelet transform, and the autoregressive method, on a real microseismic data set of intermediate quality. We show that time-frequency transforms provide an efficient tool to highlight time-varying resonance frequencies occurring during reservoir fracturing. Four distinct resonance frequencies at ∼17, ∼35, ∼51, and 60 Hz are observed during two experiments using the same experimental setup.

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