There is a strong need in our industry for advancing the understanding and applications of multiple geophysical techniques for time-lapse problems, such as for CO2–H2S sequestration and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects. Currently, monitoring efforts for such activities are dominated largely by 4D seismic, and there are numerous developments and successful applications throughout the geophysical literature to justify this state of affair (e.g., Lumley, 2010). The primary advantage of 4D seismic for these endeavors is that it can provide a high-resolution imaging tool that allows better reservoir management decisions and improved production efficiency.

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