Mineral deposits occur in different geological envi-ronments than oil and gas deposits, and are usually at very shallow depths (from surface outcrop, to hundreds of meters). Because of internal heterogeneities within most deposit types, extensive use of borehole sampling is required to satisfy resource and reserve reporting requirements. While borehole sampling can be designed to satisfy the geostatistical variability of a deposit, it is usually insufficient to adequately sample the structural continuity of deposits to a level required for accurate mine planning and production scheduling. For this reason, 2D and 3D seismic surveys are increasingly used in conjunction with borehole drilling and other geophysical methods such as aeromagnetic surveys to map the geological structure of known deposits. This paper will examine some challenges and results from Anglo American's use of seismic surveying in African coal and platinum deposits.