Traditional two-dimensional (2D) seismic acquisition techniques image the subsurface using a grid of orthogonal lines. Dips are recorded only in the along-track direction, limiting migration to a 2D along-track approximation of the inherently 3D wavefields. This produces profiles that are often complicated by out-of-plane reflections and with resolution (for structural interpretation) constrained by the line spacing rather than the source wavelength. The acquisition of true 3D seismic reflection data, in contrast, provides dip information for the reflected wavefields in both along- and across-track directions. This allows a full treatment of the 3D wavefields during migration, affording accurate 3D structural reconstruction, significantly improved resolution (theoretically 1/2 source wavelength), and increasing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) through more effective noise cancellation.

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