Monitoring hydrologic processes in the vadose zone is of great importance in developing management strategies for groundwater resources. Flow and transport behavior in variably saturated media control the rate at which, and path along which, fluids or contaminants reach groundwater aquifers. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) is sensitive to changes in the subsurface conductivity structure, which is highly dependent on the water saturation distribution in the vadose zone. Time-lapse ERI, therefore, has been widely used for environmental and hydrologic monitoring experiments.

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