The first scientific geophysical research achievements in South Africa are easy to identify: the first magnetic observatory at the Cape of Good Hope, and the Beattie and Morrison magnetic survey. In contrast, the early mining- and mineral-related geophysical surveys are not so easy to pinpoint. The best compilation of early work was provided by Krahmann (1936a). He pointed out that prior to 1931, only a few geophysical investigations were performed in southern Africa. He had records of 45 of these investigations, 30 of which comprise electrical methods. The results of many geophysical surveys were never made public, and consequently we know little or nothing about them. The surveys discussed in this section are the ones carried out and reported during the first 30 years of mining and mineral exploration geophysics in southern Africa. This then is the period commencing in the early 1900s, and this discussion ends at the start of World War II.

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