The need to manage CO2 emissions for mitigating the greenhouse effect has led to worldwide research to reduce atmospheric CO2. Techniques of carbon capture and storage (CCS) must (1) be effective and cost-competitive, (2) provide stable, long-term storage, and (3) be environmentally benign. Potential terrestrial media for CO2 storage include depleted oil and gas reservoirs, coal seams that cannot be mined, and deep saline water reservoirs capped by impermeable rock to prevent upward leakage.

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