Abstract

Electromagnetic (EM) logging is an im-portant method of formation evaluation because of its sensitivity to resistivity, which is a function of fluid saturation and fluid properties. Conventional induction and propagation resistivity logging tools excite the geological formation by axial magnetic dipole transmitter(s). Axial re-ceivers measure the formation response, reflecting the medium resistivity. Such axial measurement has no azimuthal sensitivity and is insensitive to the anisotropy and many other details of the formation.

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