Monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) of CO2 fate are three fundamental needs in geological sequestration. The primary objective of MVA protocols is to identify and quantify (1) the injected CO2 stream within the injection/storage horizon and (2) any leakage of sequestered gas from the injection horizon, providing public assurance. Thus, the success of MVA protocols based on seismic prospecting depends on having robust methodologies for detecting the amount of change in the elastic rock property, assessing the repeatability of measured changes, and interpreting and analyzing the detected changes to make quantitative predictions of the movement, presence, and permanence of CO2 storage, including leakage from the intended storage location.

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