Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies were formally addressed on the international stage 18 years ago at the First International Conference on Carbon Dioxide Removal in Amsterdam. The first commercial application of CCS technologies was deployed by Statoil in 1996 at the Sleipner gas field in the North Sea. Widespread deployment of large-scale CO2 sequestration efforts can only proceed if storage permanence is assured. The current definition of storage permanence is that 99% of injected CO2 remain securely confined after 100 years (see Carbon Sequestration Technology Roadmap and Program Plan, 2007, available at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/carbon_seq/refshelf/project%20portfolio/2007/2007Roadmap.pdf). However, storage permanence cannot be assured without development of reliable and highly accurate leakage monitoring, plume detection and monitoring, and volume accounting technologies.

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