Seismic and acoustic measurements in a broad sense, including surface seismic, borehole seismic and sonic waveforms, play an important role in improving our knowledge of hydrocarbon reservoirs in both exploration and production phases. In that context, accurate modeling of wave propagation, in particular when considering irregular free-surface effects, complicated subsurface geological structures, or the physics of a sonic tool deployed downhole, is one of the major challenges geophysicists are facing.

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