Sorting out source and path effects for seismic waves at volcanoes is critical for the proper interpretation of underlying volcanic processes. Source or path effects imply that seismic waves interact strongly with the volcanic subsurface, either through partial resonance in a conduit (Garces et al., 2000; Sturton and Neuberg, 2006) or by random scattering in the heterogeneous volcanic edifice (Wegler and Luhr, 2001). As a result, both source and path effects can cause seismic waves to repeatedly sample parts of the volcano, leading to enhanced sensitivity to small changes in material properties at those locations. The challenge for volcano seismologists is to detect and reliably interpret these subtle changes for the purpose of monitoring eruptions.

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