Methods for correcting reflections for near-surface effects are among the earliest techniques developed for seismic processing. Most fall into the category of statics correction techniques, which attempt to remove near-surface effects by applying a simple time shift (or “static”) to each seismic trace to align corresponding events before stacking. The time shift applied to each trace has contributions associated with the surface locations of both source and geophone, and sometimes a contribution from residual moveout, an error attributable to slightly incorrect moveout velocity.

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