Abstract

The main function of roots is absorbing water and nutrients (sap) required for the development of plants and trees and anchoring them to the ground. The increasing water shortage in many countries calls for a better understanding of root structure, root volume, water uptake by roots, and water redistribution in the soil-plant zone to serve as the base for a well-directed and sustainable supply of water. Root zones mainly consist of a mixture of root branches and soil material. The root branches within the root envelope are of two kinds: fine, soft roots that absorb the sap from the surrounding soils and thick, wooden roots that transport the sap to the trunk and leaves. The sap is used mainly for transpiration processes and slightly for growth processes (photosynthesis and formation of carbon).

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