In many parts of the world, P- or S-wave impedance (IP or IS or seismic velocities (VP or VS) are not good indicators of lithology. In these cases, estimation of density or VP/VS is essential for reservoir characterization. Conventional inversion of PP-mode data is known to yield IP and IS, but a reliable estimate of density requires prestack inversion of very large-angle PP data (Roy et al., 2008). Such large-angle PP data sets necessitate acquisition and true-amplitude processing of unusually large offsets.

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