Although acquisition and processing technology has evolved rapidly in providing more accurate subsurface images, there are other issues that make mapping the subsurface difficult. Seismic noise that is unrelated to the subsurface sometimes makes seismic acquisition impossible. In heavily populated areas, this can include power line noise, factory noise, water pumps, vehicle traffic, and noise from quarries. These noise types can have a variety of data characteristics in data, except for power line noise, which has a specific, characteristic 50-Hz periodicity.

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