Ten years ago, the argument for permanent ocean-bottom cables (OBC) seemed compelling. Permanent OBC deployment would provide the best possible receiver repeatability, while wide-azimuth geometry would provide improved illumination as well as fracture characterization. Hydrophone-geophone (PZ) combinations would improve demultiple. Finally, multicomponent receivers would also record shear waves that would unravel the combined effects of lithology, porosity, and fractures for reservoir characterization, as well as the combined effects of fluid replacement and pressure changes for monitoring.

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